Male Papilio polytes have a black upper wing with a large whitish yellow band along the hindwings. The underside of the wings has a series of yellow to red submarginal lunulas on the hindwings. The female butterfly is polymorphic, with several forms, namely the form of -polytes that mimic the Common Rose but the entire belly is black. The form of -cyrus that resembling the male but has a torn red spot in the hindwing 1a space. This species has a spatulate tail on the veins 4 hindwings.
Larva: larvae of Papilio polytes are yellowish brown in the dorsal area and dark brown in the lateral area, about 3 mm long, their body surface is slightly tapered. At the 5th instar stage, the color of the body changes to green with an eye spot on the 3rd thoracic segment which is connected by a transverse green band and a winding mark on its back.
Pupa: Papilio polytes pupae have two forms of color. Green form pupae are green with yellowish diamond-like markings on the dorsum of the abdominal segment. Brown form pupae are gray to dark brown. The pupa of this species has a pair of horns on its head, a hump on its back and appears to be tilted to the side. The length of the pupa is about 31 – 32 mm.